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Introduction To Artificial Intelligence

“The Most Simple Idea Is The Most Powerful One”-Patrick Winston

AI may be defined as:
AI is a form of intelligence; a type of technology and a field of study.AI theory an development of computer systems (both machines and software) are able to perform taskst hat normally require human intelligence. Artificial Intelligence covers a broad range of domains and applications and is expected to impact every field in the future. Overall, its core idea is building machines and algorithms which are capable of performing computational tasks that would otherwise require human like brain functions

The intelligence is intangible. It is composed of

  • Reasoning
  • Learning
  • Problem Solving
  • Perception
  • Linguistic Intelligence

Stuart J. Russell and Peter Norvig  derived four approaches to determince whether the A.i act humanly or not.

1.Thinking Humanly:

 As we are saying that the given program thinks like human it we should know that how human thinks. For, that the theory of human minds needs to be explored .Ther are two ways to do this : through introspection  i.e trying to catch out own thoughts as they go by and through pyschological expirments.

if computer programs , I/O and timing behaviours mathces corresponding human behaiviours , that is we can say that somw  of the operating in human . the interdesciplinary field of cognitive science brings together  computer models from AI and ecpiremnetal techniques from psychology that try to construct precise and testable theories of the working of human minds

2.Acting Humanly:

The Turing Test, proposed by Alan Turing (1950), was designed to provide a satisfactory
operational definition of intelligence. A computer passes the test if a human interrogator, after
posing some written questions, cannot tell whether the written responses come from a person
or from a computer

Computer would need to possess the following capabilities:
• natural language processing to enable it to communicate successfully in English; 
• knowledge representation to store what it knows or hears; KNOWLEDGE
• automated reasoning to use the stored information to answer questions and to draw new conclusions;
• machine learning to adapt to new circumstances and to detect and extrapolate patterns.

3.Acting rationally: The rational agent approach:

An agent is just something that acts (agent comes from the Latin agere, to do). Of course, all computer programs do something, but computer agents are expected to do more: operate autonomously, perceive their environment, persist over a prolonged time period, adapt to change, and create and pursue goals. A rational agent is one that acts so as to achieve the  best outcome or, when there is uncertainty, the best expected outcome.

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